To achieve the national development in the agricultural sector, agricultural development, there are three main target groups that need to be accomplished are:
- Increasing national food security include increasing agricultural production capacity and reduced dependence on imported food around 5-10 percent of domestic production;
- Added value and competitiveness of agricultural commodities which include improving the quality of primary agricultural products, increasing the diversity of processing agricultural products and increased exports and rising trade surplus agricultural commodities, and
- Increasing the welfare of farmers which include: increased labor productivity in the agricultural sector and the declining incidence of poverty.
To implement the objectives of agricultural development is needed to invite the whole society and the outside agriculture farmers. Forms of solicitation which also can enhance the ability of the community through non-formal education such as counseling. Agricultural extension is a learning process for the main actors and entrepreneurs so that they are willing and able to help and organize themselves in order to access market information, technology, capital, and other resources in an effort to improve productivity, business efficiency, revenue, and welfare, as well as improving awareness in environmental conservation.
In the process of agricultural extension that success can be achieved by setting the messages / materials appropriate to the goals of agricultural development without neglecting the needs of the farming community. Agricultural extension messages or materials to be accepted and internalized and implemented so as to improve the ability, if the chosen mode of delivery suited to the conditions of the farming community. Choosing ways or methods / techniques will determine the success in the organization of agricultural extension programs that are part of the development of agriculture.
DEFINITIONS, PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES
Agricultural Extension method is a way to deliver of content (the message) to farmers and their family workers by the extension workers either directly or indirectly, to let them know, willing and able to use new innovations. Generally the message consists of a number of symbols, and the message is that to obtain treatment. Form of treatment is to choose, organize, simplify, presents etc.. On the other hand, symbol means the codes used in the message. Symbols are easily observed and the most widely used languages. Decisions made by the agricultural extension or sources to select and organize the content of messages and symbols used in the message can be said agricultural extension techniques. On the other hand the agricultural extension activities involved in the learning process because the extension is included in the non-formal education system. In accordance with the objectives, teaching and learning processes in agricultural extension requires retention of high or maximum effect. To obtain a high retention, each audience requires repetitive learning. Thus, agricultural extension techniques can be defined as a decision-making made by the source or counselors in selecting and arranging symbols and message content to determine the manner and frequency of delivery options and determine the form of the presentation of the message message.
Improving the effectiveness of agricultural extension with the selection of appropriate methods, in accordance with the requirements and conditions of the target
- Agricultural extension in order to establish a method or combination of methods are appropriate and effective.
- In order for agricultural extension activities undertaken to cause the desired change.
Before apply agricultural extension methods to be considered for extension is to understand the principles that can be used as the basis for choosing the appropriate method:
Development for creative thinking
Through counseling, is not intended to be the beneficiaries themselves are always beneficial to the instructions, advice, or guidance penyuluhannya. But instead, through counseling must be able farmers who produced his own effort is able to overcome the problems encountered, as well as be able to develop their creativity and to take advantage of any potential opportunities that can be learned to continuously improve the quality of life. Therefore, in every activity counseling, a counselor should be able to choose the way that as far as possible to develop the power of reason and creativity beneficiaries.
The best place is on the activities of the beneficiaries
It is certain that every individual really loves his profession, because it does not like to be disturbed (to leave work routine), and always behave in accordance with his own experiences and the realities they face everyday. Therefore, in many cases, outreach activities should be carried out by applying the method dilaksnakan in the work (activities) beneficiaries. It is intended to:
Not much of a bother (time consuming) routine activities.
Extension can understand the true state of the beneficiaries, including the problems faced and the potential and opportunities that can be utilized to improve the quality of their lives.
To beneficiaries can be given concrete examples of problems and potential and opportunities that can be found within the work itself, so it is easy to understand and impregnated and remembered by beneficiaries.
Each individual is tied to the social environment
As social beings, individuals will always behave in accordance with the conditions of the social environment, or at least will always try to conform to the behavior of those around him. Therefore, outreach activities will be more efficient if applied only to a few people, especially who are recognized by their environment as a “role model” is good.
Create a relationship with the beneficiaries
Extension activities are efforts to change the behavior of others in a persuasive manner by applying sietem education. The existence of an intimate personal relationship between the counselor and the recipient of its benefits, will be a requirement that must be met, at least
least will expedite the extension itself. The intimate relationships between educators and beneficiaries is very important. Because of the familiarity that will create a problem megemukakan openness and expression. In addition, suggestions are given extension can be accepted with pleasure like the suggestion of a friend without any prejudice or feeling forced.
Providing something for a change.
Extension activities are efforts to change the behavior of beneficiaries, whether knowledge, attitudes or skills. Thus, the method adopted must be able to stimulate beneficiaries to be ready (in terms of attitude and mind), and with love hearts on awareness or consideration of his reason alone to make changes to improve the quality of his own life. Family and community.